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Пред. 06.01.12, 14:32   #27
Дм. Винoxoдов
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The Bible, King Arthur, and "The Lord of the Rings": Archetypal connections and influences on J. R. R. Tolkien
by Palmer, Jody, M.A., California State University, Dominguez Hills, 2005, 53 pages

Abstract (Summary)

While much literary criticism has been written on J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , including using the archetypal approach, not many critics have specifically traced archetypes of the Bible and Arthurian literature to Tolkien's work---both of which profoundly influenced his writing. This study will look at evidence of these influences in the Rings trilogy as well as explore particular archetypes. The middle chapters of this thesis center on different archetypes, each chapter focusing on a single one and drawing connections between characters in each of these three areas of literature. These are archetypes that are employed in the Bible but can be traced through Arthurian legend and into The Lord of the Rings , such as the wise prophet and the sacrificial hero.

Humanity through the ages has desired stories of heroes that elevate the human spirit. Exploring archetypes from these three ancient, medieval, and modern epics---like analyzing any universal symbol or theme in any literature---validates that part of human nature.

A stylistic analysis of selected passages in "The Hobbit" and "The Lord of the Rings"
by Hurtubise, Paul Gustave, M.A., York University (Canada), 1998, 173 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J. R. R. Tolkien's abilities in the art of narrative are explored and evaluated through the medium of linguistic/sociolinguistic and literary theories. Chapter 1 discusses a poem by Tolkien, "From dark Dunharrow in the dim morning," examining its exploitation of the rules and techniques of Old English poetic verse. Chapter 2 investigates Tolkien's skill in depicting not only comic conversations, in The Hobbit, but in balancing the comic with the potentially tragic; this is done through the medium of "Face," "Implicature," and "Speech Acts" as advanced, respectively, by Goffman, Grice and Searle. Chapter 3 explores "evaluation," as proposed by Labov, in the passage from The Lord of the Rings which describes the riding of king Theoden at the Battle of the Pelenor. Appendix A contains the scene from The Hobbit, which is to be analysed in Chapter 2. Appendix B contains a "labovian" breakdown of the passage which is to be analysed in Chapter 3. The sources of each passage that is to undergo stylistic scrutiny are The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.

Uses of Celtic legend and Arthurian romance in J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings"
by Phillips, David Calvin, M.A., East Texas State University, 1993, 93 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Close examination of the themes in The Lord of the Rings and a comparison of those themes with the themes found in medieval Celtic legend and the later Arthurian romances which grew out of the Celtic stories about Arthur show that this British legend is the most likely source for Tolkien's work. This thesis also compares numerous elements of Tolkien's trilogy with very similar elements in Celtic legends.

Comparison of elements of analogue, plot, and theme which are similar in Tolkien's work and in Celtic and Arthurian legend not only shows that Tolkien drew upon these legends, but also that his purpose in writing the trilogy was to create a new national legend for England in which the Arthur figure, the character Aragorn in the trilogy, returns to establish a glorious reign and to set to rights all that has gone wrong with England as a nation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

by SARTI, RONALD CHRISTOPHER, Ph.D., Indiana University, 1984, 205 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J. R. R. Tolkien's cosmology translated into a great mythological structure revolving around three dominant and inclusive themes: Fall, Mortality and the Machine (or Magic). Mortality, or lif is laene, is the dominant and unifying theme of The Lord of the Rings.

Mortality is a theme found in much of medieval literature, and particularly in Beowulf, one of Tolkien's favorite works. Like the Beowulf poet, Tolkien centered his work about the great truth of the mortal world: lif is laene: life is transitory. Man and all his works shall die. The theme is developed in The Lord of the Rings in four repeated manifestations: change, choice, leave-taking and death, each reiterating the lessons of a mortal world and the sense of loss and sadness engendered thereby.

Faced with the dominance of this theme in his work, as in his life, Tolkien explores two antithetical philosophies of life that have dominated much of Western thought in the last two thousand years. The two philosophies, or codes of life, are the Nordic and the Christian. As the theme forms a pervasive backdrop to his drama, so that exploration of these two codes composes the dramatic conflict at center stage.

Each provides a way of dealing with the grim reality of a mortal world. The Nordic code is expressed in the values of despair, pride, vengeance and earthly fealty, values which have long served Western Man. However, the Nordic code, as Tolkien well knew, could betray as well as fortify.

In contrast, the Christian values of hope, humility, mercy and fealty (or submission) to God and His Purpose allow a true understanding and acceptance of each man's place in the mortal world of God's Plan. They permit a more effective defense against the worst enemy, the despair of death. Death itself is not to be despaired, for it is not a punishment, but a gift. These messages are the purpose of Tolkien's greatest work.

Freedom and shared storytelling in J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings"
by Bird, Tanya, M.A., University of Ottawa (Canada), 2003, 174 pages

Abstract (Summary)

This thesis explores the freedom of shared storytelling in Tolkien's seminal essay, "On Fairy-Stories," and applies these principles to his fiction. In The Lord of The Rings , authentic storytelling is developed not through domination of others, but within the context of free relationships. Ultimately, the literary freedom that the author enjoys, and extends to the audience or to characters, is grounded in the Primary Creator's gift of freedom and invitation to engage in "subcreation." While Sauron ruptures the subcreative relationship by forging the ring of power to dominate others ("magic"), the elves, hobbits and other creatures share narrative ("enchantment"), affirming being through "recovery." Recovery counteracts Sauron's determinism and enables hope for "eucatastrophe," the redemptive grace at the heart of stories. Tolkien offers a unique alternative to secular models of literary freedom: human agency may be represented in literature not only through independence from divine intervention, but also in collaboration with it.
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