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Пред. 06.01.12, 15:32   #26
Дм. Винoxoдов
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by DOWIE, WILLIAM JOHN, JR., Ph.D., Brandeis University, 1970, 130 pages

Mythologies of power: H. Rider Haggard's influence on J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings"
by Hix, Melanie Renee, M.L.A., Oklahoma City University, 2004, 55 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J. R. R. Tolkien's influence on pop culture is evident in the immense popularity of The Lord of the Rings book and movie version. However, little is known about any substantial influence on the author himself, with the exception of H. Rider Haggard. Indeed, in an interview with Henry Resnick, Tolkien admits the influence of Haggard's fantastic adventure novels: "I suppose as a boy She interested me as much as anything--like the Greek shard of Amynatas, which was the kind of machine by which everything got moving" (40). In what way did Haggard help Tolkien "get moving"? How did Haggard influence Tolkien? Both authors explore mythologies of power. I believe Tolkien took several of Haggard's characters and settings/plots and made them into characters that are more dynamic (than Haggard's characters) in his beloved trilogy LOTR .

A close study of LOTR and Haggard's King Solomon's Mines reveals striking similarities between the fortune-fated Gollum of LOTR trilogy and the sad, shadowed Gagool of Haggard's novel. Similarly, Galadriel, the beautiful elven queen of LOTR shares striking traits of power with Haggard's title character She . The final similarity I explore is the symbolic setting/plot combination. Both Haggard and Tolkien used caves/death in order to explore power and its destructive nature. I show the striking similarities between Haggard's fantasy/adventure novels and Tolkien's trilogy that has captured the world's attention.

Embracing the Took: Kinship between Middle Earth and sixties youth
by Watkins, Shana, M.A., The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2007, 80 pages

Abstract (Summary)

The purpose of this thesis is to quash the reading of J.R.R. Tolkien's works as allegory, especially as allegory for the events of the turbulent 1960s, i.e. the Vietnam War, 1967's Summer of Love, the women's liberation movement, etc. By addressing each of the Sixties' infamous political and social movements, tragedies, victories, and controversies, this paper proves that the members of the Baby Boomer generation were inspired by the events described in Tolkien's primary works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. Middle Earth's events in the novels resounded throughout the Sixties, but were not actually about the Sixties, nor were they allegories of any previous decade, as some critics claim. Being a time of social unrest and demand for government and social revamping, the Sixties provided a particularly enthralled audience for the fantasy genre because it provided an alternative to mainstream literature. Sixties youth--part of which came to be known as the counterculture--demanded alternatives in nearly every facet of the American lifestyle, from the young rock-and-roll music genre to rebellious young celebrity idols like James Dean who contrasted Sixties parents' idea of glamorous and wholesome movie stars whose film and television characters strove to acquire the materialistic American dream.

by KOLBE, MARTHA EMILY, Educat.D., University of Virginia, 1981, 285 pages

Abstract (Summary)

A literary phenomenon occurred in the History of Children's Literature in that five eminent scholars from one of England's most prestigious universities, Oxford, became interested in the creation of Other Worlds for children. In order to accommodate intensive investigation of the phenomenon, this study was delimited to include three of the five authors. Lewis Carroll, C. S. Lewis, and J. R. R. Tolkien were selected to comprise the sample, while John Ruskin and W. H. Auden were excluded.

This study investigated some of the motivational factors present in the lives of these scholars that stimulated them in the midst of brilliant academic careers to compose major works for children. Strands of similarities and differences were identified which existed in the family background, environment, and personality traits of each man. Historical, religious, and literary influences affecting each life were also examined. An additional factor of interest was each author's own perception of why he was compelled to create Other Worlds for children. Finally, an effort was made to describe some of the unique qualities of each author's work.

An analysis was made of the biographical data collected in all of the specific categories for each of the authors. This categorical analysis was conducted utilizing a method of comparing and contrasting, category by category, all available information for the group. In each area patterns of commonality and variance were noted and presented through discussion and cataloguing within each category.

Results of the study indicate that the three authors exhibited early in life an extraordinary intellectual ability to deal with abstractions. The environmental influences which operated upon each author's mental capacities were often quite similar when studied beyond the mere surface level of evidence. The major differences were chiefly found in the physical circumstances of each life.

This study concluded that the creative world of the field of Children's Literature was both ideal and irresistible to the three scholars. They were committed to the rigors of academic life and the love of language. In the final analysis Lewis Carroll, C. S. Lewis, and J. R. R. Tolkien were men far removed from the give and take world of commerce. . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of school.) UMI

by HYDE, PAUL NOLAN, Ph.D., Purdue University, 1982, 1230 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J. R. R. Tolkien's "linguistic aesthetic" as displayed in his invented languages, his use of historical languages, and his patterning of introductory verb and adverbial modifiers for dialog, is presented to evidence Tolkien's capacity for character development in the tradition of the Fairy Tale. Chapter I discusses the controversy concerning Tolkien's apparent inability to depict character. Chapter II summarizes Tolkien's statements in correspondence and interviews regarding his "linguistic aesthetic" and how that aesthetic motivated his inventions, both linguistic and narrative. Chapters III through VIII comprise a descriptive analysis of the invented languages of Middle-earth including orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax. Chapters IX and X discuss the use of real historical languages in the fantasies and the extraordinary care taken by Tolkien in choosing appropriate verbs and adverbial modifiers to introduce the dialog of the characters. Particular attention is given to statistical analyses of "unmarked" verbs and adverbial modifiers. The Appendices contain complete Glossaries of the Invented and Real Language elements together with computer-derived morphological elements. Other Appendices contain all of the verbs and adverbial modifiers together with the "Speaker", Speaker Race", "Responder/Addressee", "Responder/Addressee Race", and the source for each utterance by volume and page number for: "Smith of Wooton Major", "Farmer Giles of Ham", "Leaf by Niggle", The Hobbit, The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, The Return of the King, The Silmarillion, and Unfinished Tales.
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