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Пред. 06.01.12, 15:27   #21
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Tolkien's "The Silmarillion": A reexamination of providence
by Powell, David C., M.A., Florida Atlantic University, 2009, 88 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Christian providence in the primary (real) world operates as the model for the spiritual movement of Eru/Illuvatar in Tolkien's secondary (imaginative) world. Paralleling the Christian God, Illuvatar maintains a relationship with his creation through a three-fold activity: preservation, concurrence, and government. Preservation affirms Eru's sovereignty as Creator, and concurrence guarantees creaturely freedom, while paradoxically, government controls, guides, and determines those wills in Time. The union of these three activities comprises the providential relationship of Illuvatar in Tolkien's imaginary world. The following thesis endeavors to carry the argument for providence into The Silmarillion with a declarative and analytical detail that distinguishes Illuvatar's providence from other temporal manifestations. Finally, the analysis reveals not only the author's authentic orthodox perspective, but Illuvatar's role in the imaginative world emerges as a reflection of Tolkien's authorial role in the real world.

Discordia concours in Tolkien's musical universe
by Renneisen, Elizabeth McLean, Ph.D., Middle Tennessee State University, 2008, 222 pages

Abstract (Summary)

In J. R. R. Tolkien's myth "The Ainulindalë," Ilúvatar constructs the world of Middle-earth through music. While the Ainur, Tolkien's idea of angelic beings, interweave melodies to reflect the beauty of the world, one Ainu, Melkor, interjects dissonance of his own that is responsible for the evil in Middle-earth. The act of creation through music seems to be Tolkien's own device; however, music as an essential component in cosmogony does have philosophical precedents, including ideas propounded by Pythagoras and Boethius. This interjection of discord has a significant effect on The Silmarillion as a mythology for England. All mythologies have some basis in reality, whether they explain the origins of customs, ideas, or even people. Melkor's influence can be traced throughout The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings . Ultimately it is Sauron, minion of Melkor, that is responsible for the emergence of Man as the dominant being in the Fourth Age, thus tying Middle-earth to our own history and lending Tolkien's stories credibility in terms of a national mythology--not as a fantasy.

Models of medievalism in the fiction of C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and J.K. Rowling
by Spitzer, Drennan C., Ph.D., University of California, Riverside, 2005, 269 pages

Abstract (Summary)

C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, and J.K Rowling, all writers of fantasy fiction for adolescents, continually reference medieval literature and culture as a way to define cultural identity. Cultural identity gains legitimacy and even cultural supremacy because of its purported medieval foundations. The medievalism of these writers is associated with a cultural conservativism that is skeptical about the possibility of social progress. C.S. Lewis's medievalism is outlined most clearly in his academic works, especially in The Discarded Image , which intentionally describes what he calls the "medieval Model." This "Model" provides a groundwork for the medievalism that permeates Lewis's fiction, yet it also provides a lens for understanding other writers in the tradition of fantasy for adolescents. Lewis's "medieval Model" prefers traditional, even obsolete, ways of thinking about the universe and man's place in it to modern ones. The "medieval Model" also provides an antidote for the ills of the modern world, as we see in Lewis's fiction, notably his The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and That Hideous Strength . J.R.R. Tolkien also deals with the difficulties of the modern world. Like Lewis, Tolkien writes in the wake of the World Wars and is concerned with the threat to English identity and cultural identity caused by the Wars. And like Lewis, Tolkien also reverts to medievalism as an antidote. Tolkien, specifically, privileges particular cultural practices by providing philological, medieval justifications for these practices. This is evidenced in his children's novel The Hobbit as well as in his "Prologue" to The Lord of the Rings , where Tolkien most clearly explains and justifies the cultural practices of Hobbits as stand-ins for English heritage. J.K. Rowling, in her Harry Potter series, writes in the tradition defined by Lewis and Tolkien. Here, Rowling in some ways presents the better parts of the wizarding world as socially progressive. However, the possibility for real, lasting social change is continually called into question by the medievalized institutions that define wizarding society.

The creative process of J. R. R. Tolkien and the tradition of the magus
by Richards, Darielle Teresa, Ph.D., Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2005, 294 pages

Abstract (Summary)

As his letters reveal, J. R. R. Tolkien clearly intended to open a way for others to follow after him in the cultivation and literary creation of Other-worlds, not only as a refreshment to the soul, but as something of a natural mode and right of inheritance for each of us as the creative offspring of a Maker.

This hermeneutic exegesis of Tolkien's creative process reveals that he and his works not only hold up a literary mirror to the wisdom and praxis of depth and archetypal psychology but also exemplify the consciousness of a larger "magical" and imaginative tradition that calls for an even more aesthetic and imaginal psychology. This venerable lineage was named the "tradition of the magus" by fifteenth-century neoplatonic artist-scholar Marsilio Ficino. Its ancient principles served to ignite the Florentine Renaissance. Those of the magus lineage embrace the hermeneutic perspective innate to the Heart, which is both a participatory and a transformative threshold. This initiatory path is mythically sponsored by the friendliest god, Hermes. It is the intent of this study to make more visible this tradition and to identify certain forces that harm or censor it.

A further purpose of this theoretical study includes making available Tolkien's thoughts on his literary process, which impart to us a recovery of the threshold of the Heart from which a sense of kinship with all life and creative insight springs. This threshold is an imaginal doorway through which the "middle realm," or what Henry Corbin has called the mundus imaginalis , can be experienced. From this place, the creative process becomes co-creation within the parameters established by the biosphere and the life around us.

Tolkien reminds us of the divinity within, calling us to a deeper personal level of truth and reality. Such a lens allows us to perceive beyond our everyday world to the powers, images, figures, creatures, and stories of fäerie and the middle realm which deeply inform our lives. With this perception Tolkien reminds us that we might participate in the ongoing unfolding of the epiphanic living cosmos.

First man and Green Man: Archetypal parallels between Tolkien's Middle Earth, pagan Europe and Christian modernism
by Adams, Alicia E., M.A., California State University, Dominguez Hills, 2005, 64 pages

Abstract (Summary)

This thesis establishes that in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , certain archetypal characters are present within the text in more than one incarnation. The biblical Adam as represented by the character Tom Bombadil, as well as the pagan Green Man as represented by the character Treebeard, function as nature protector figures within archetypal criticism. A nature protector figure was included twice within the text due to Tolkien's extremely anti-modernist sentiment. He also attempted to reconcile his Romantic and Catholic beliefs regarding nature.

Fate, providence, and free will: Clashing perspectives of world order in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth
by Lasseter, Helen Theresa, Ph.D., Baylor University, 2006, 236 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Through the medium of a fictional world, Tolkien returns his modern audience to the ancient yet extremely relevant conflict between fate, providence, and the person's freedom before them. Tolkien's expression of a providential world order to Middle-earth incorporates the Northern Germanic cultures' literary depiction of a fated world, while also reflecting the Anglo-Saxon poets' insight that a single concept, wyrd , could signify both fate and providence. This dissertation asserts that Tolkien, while acknowledging as correct the Northern Germanic conception of humanity's final powerlessness before the greater strength of wyrd as fate, uses the person's ultimate weakness before wyrd as the means for the vindication of providence. Tolkien's unique presentation of world order pays tribute to the pagan view of fate while transforming it into a Catholic understanding of providence.

The first section of the dissertation shows how the conflict between fate and providence in The Silmarillion results from the elvish narrator's perspective on temporal events. Chapter One examines the friction between fate and free will within The Silmarillion and within Tolkien's Northern sources, specifically the Norse Eddas , the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf , and the Finnish The Kalevala . Chapter Two shows that Tolkien, following Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy , presents Middle-earth's providential order as including fated elements but still allowing for human freedom.

The second section shows how The Lord of the Rings reflects but resolves the conflict in The Silmarillion between fate, providence, and free will. Chapter Three explores the extent to which a person can respond before powers of fate, such as the Ring and also deterministic circumstances. The final chapter argues that providence upholds the importance of every person by cooperating with his or her free will, not coercing it; however, providence reveals its authority over all things, including fate, by working through the person's final failure before fatalistic powers.
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Пред. 06.01.12, 15:29   #22
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The presocratic and platonic philosophical influences on J. R. R. Tolkien's epic, "The Lord of the Rings"
by Yulo, Jose Maria J., Ed.D., University of San Francisco, 2005, 133 pages

Abstract (Summary)

This study sought to discover the ties binding ancient Greek philosophy, to the literature of Professor J. R. R. Tolkien. These ties resided in the province of ethical philosophy, initially apprehended from the Greeks, which was compared to Tolkien's epic work, The Lord of the Rings . The underlying thrust of the research involved the ethical, philosophical progression of presocratic Greek thought. This progression coursed from Heraclitean logos, to Parmenidean truth, and finally to Platonic justice.

This underlying ethical base serves as a marbled foundation on which to build a body of literature which truly benefits educational fields such as philosophy, literature, and politics. Therefore, reading from great works like Tolkien's, an author descended from the venerable Canon began by Homer, extends to the student a true liberal education: an education that sets one free from sophistry.

The research was conducted by means of a close reading of Tolkien's epic and three Greek philosophical texts: Heraclitus's and Parmenides's Fragments , as well as Plato's Republic . In the reading, Greek philosophical themes were extracted and juxtaposed to threads found in The Lord of the Rings .

The results of the research manifested a convergence between the progression of Greek ethical philosophy and Tolkien's own moral foundation throughout the three installments of the letter's epic. The Heraclitean concept of strife permeated The Fellowship of the Ring . Likewise, Parmenidean themes such as truth, as it differed from mortal guile, illumined the tale of The Two Towers . Lastly, Platonic justice, and its kindred virtues, cemented the resolution found in The Return of the King .

In conclusion, whereas these convergences point to Tolkien and the Greeks as drawing from a shared spring, the Professor's Catholicism allowed for yet another moral beacon: charity. The actions carried out by Tolkien's character Samwise Gamgee reached beyond the parameters set forth in Greek ethical philosophy. In choosing to forego victory and glory, the latter instead sought to rescue his friend Frodo; a true fellowship of the ring.

J. R. R. Tolkien's lecture "On Fairy-Stories": The qualities of Tolkienian fantasy
by Northrup, Clyde Bryan, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 2004, 297 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Tolkien's 1939 lecture, "On Fairy-stories," is viewed by fantasy critics as a statement of Tolkien's aesthetics, rather than a critical framework for interpreting Tolkienian fantasy. This work will attempt to show that this lecture by Tolkien actually creates a framework for interpretation, the four qualities of Tolkienian fantasy, that will be applied later on to four contemporary fantasies by David Eddings, Roger Zelazny, Stephen R. Donaldson, and J. K. Rowling, along with Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings .

After surveying fantasy criticism from George MacDonald's late 19th Century essay to the present, we look at Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesy and his place in fantasy criticism. Following the lead of Italian humanist Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Sidney responds to critics of his day, arguing that the poet should not be subject to the restraints reality, but rather, should be free to go as far as his or her imagination will carry him or her. He also borrows from neo-Platonist ideas as also Aristotle, creating a space for the poet to operate outside of the limits of our world. Joseph Addison's Spectator essays on the pleasures of the imagination, expands upon Sidney, noticing the power of words to create images of things not present, requiring a reader of equal imagination. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, in his Biographia Literaria , posits that this ability to create on the part of the author is a reflection of the creative act of the divine creator who made man. Oscar Wilde's essay, "The Decay of Lying," defends imaginative literature against the realists of his day, arguing for a return to the "art of lying," which is the creation, through art, of "beautiful, untrue things." Tolkien seems to respond to Wilde's challenge, picking of the threads of Sidney and Coleridge to explain his idea of "sub-creation" on the part of the author, who creates through writing secondary worlds that contain fragments of the "truth," which is, for Tolkien, the truth of his Catholic beliefs in God and his creation of man. If the author does his work well then he creates in the reader "secondary belief" in the secondary world of the narrative, taking up Addison's ideas and taking exception to Coleridge's "willing suspension of disbelief." The reader believes the created world is "real," in the sense that it exists while the reader is "inside" the narrative world.

These ideas lead Tolkien to give the four qualities of a "fairy-story," as he names them, fantasy, recovery, escape, and consolation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Tolkien's synthetic myth: Fantasy at the dawn of the global age, and, Comic book cosmopolis: Globalization and the superhero
by Tedder, Charles F., III, M.A., The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2005, 82 pages

Abstract (Summary)

I. Written at the inception of the global age and despite privileging Western traditions, Tolkien's work displays an emergent global consciousness, one which emphasizes the role of local identity in global affairs and posits allegiance and cultural bridge building as a solution and safeguard against worldwide conflict or subjugation under a totalitarian regime. Also, it is suggested that the work bears some generic resemblance to Menippean satire.

II. Superhero comics, generically predispositioned to manifest cultural dynamics, show special aptitude for engaging contemporary issues relating to postmodernity and globalization. Thus, supervillains have been rewritten as terrorists or depersonified systemic failures while, correspondingly, superheroes have been inscribed with a new cosmopolitan ideal of heroic intervention that foregrounds cooperative networking, emphasizes the importance of local/personal motivation to global action, and privileges negotiation over violent conflict.

Gollum: The fulcrum of desire in J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings"
by Bernard, Carol A., Ph.D., University of Houston, 2005, 173 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Critics of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings often examine the novel in terms of biography, mythology, and linguistics. When they investigate the novel in terms of characters, including studies of gender and sexuality, the two characters who receive the most attention are Sam and Frodo. These two characters are clearly central to the storyline, and some critics have already begun investigating their relationship in terms of queer theory, looking at the male homosocial bond between Sam and Frodo and even arguing that Sam and Frodo have a distinctly homoerotic bond. However, this dissertation argues that their bond is predicated on the presence of Gollum/Smeagol. Using the work of Rene Girard and Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, I argue that Tolkien creates an erotic triangle between these three central characters, with Gollum acting as both a hindrance and a help to the development of Frodo and Sam's romantic relationship.

Using Tolkien's own concept of "applicability," which he outlines in the Foreword to the Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings , I initially examine his life as a guide to understanding and applying the importance of male homosocial desire in his work. In the second chapter, I examine first his friendships from his school days' at St. Edwards, focusing on the three friends who became the Tea Club, Barrovian Society (TCBS), and then on how those friendships were materially altered by World War I. In the next chapter, I discuss the friend who had the most profound effect on his life, that of C. S. (Jack) Lewis. In both of these chapters, I make the argument that Tolkien's life has profound implications for his characterization of the hobbits, particularly the relationship between Sam and Frodo. The fourth chapter examines in depth the homosocial bond between Sam and Frodo, making the argument that their relationship is both idealized and homoerotic. The fifth chapter makes the central argument of this dissertation, that Gollum/Smeagol, because of his dualities and complicated nature, acts as both a chaperone of Frodo and Sam, preventing them from engaging in physically overt homosexual acts, as well as a goad that pushes Frodo and Sam together. Moroever, Tolkien creates situations where Gollum has a romantic relationship with both Frodo and Sam individually, thus forming a classic erotic triangle. I conclude by comparing the death of Gollum with the departure of Frodo to the Grey Havens. Without Gollum's presence, Sam and Frodo can no longer enjoy their idealized relationship, and thus Frodo leaves--Middle-earth and Sam.
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"Who invented the stories anyway?" a Reformed perspective on Tolkien's theory of fantasy
by Imbert, Yannick F., Ph.D., Westminster Theological Seminary, 2010, 380 pages

Abstract (Summary)

This dissertation defends the thesis that J. R. R. Tolkien's theory of fantasy has to be understood as much in his theological context as in his academic context. We assert that Tolkien's theory is specifically Thomist in its theological nature. To support this assertion, our first goal is to show that J. R. R. Tolkien's overall theory of fantasy is based on his Roman Catholic faith. The second goal is to offer a Reformed evaluation of Tolkien's theory of fantasy to provide the basis for the subsequent development of a Reformed and covenantal theory of fantasy.

Beginning with a brief presentation of Tolkien's life, we then examine his historical background more closely, paying particular attention to the influence of John Henry Newman in the context of nineteenth-century English Roman Catholicism. Newman's influence is particularly crucial to the development of Tolkien's faith, and so to his theory of fantasy.

The second and third chapters explores Tolkien's theory in the context of contemporary academic debates. Tolkien scholars, while paying close attention to major themes in Tolkien's theory of fantasy, have at times underestimated the importance of ongoing academic debates in which Tolkien participated. In these two chapters, we consider successively language and mythology to reach a better understanding of Tolkien's own view regarding these topics. We conclude that, while Tolkien follows contemporary theories regarding language and mythology, his own convictions in these matters is strongly informed by his Roman Catholic faith.

The fourth chapter unites the conclusions of the preceding chapters in order to present Tolkien's theory of fantasy. In particular, we examine Tolkien's notions of man as subcreator, the nature of imagination, and his definition of "Faërie." In this chapter, the dissertation focuses on Tolkien's underlying theological convictions to present the core of our thesis regarding the theological nature of Tolkien's theory of fantasy. Relying heavily on the works of Thomas Aquinas and G. K. Chesterton, we conclude that the Thomistic notion of analogy between God and man is particularly important to Tolkien's understanding of the nature of imagination and fantasy.

Finally, chapter five presents a Reformed critique of Tolkien's theory of fantasy. Since Tolkien's fantasy relies on a Thomist starting-point, our evaluation is mostly based on the Van Til's criticism of Thomism. We apply Van Til's criticism against the notion of "autonomous reason" to Tolkien's use of imagination as an "autonomous" concept. We conclude that instead of defining fantasy along the lines of an analogical relationship between God and man, it is better to consider that fantasy is intrinsically ethical, rather than ontological.

Fantasy and realism: Tolkien, the eucatastrophe, and fantastic realism
by Ulrich, Andrea Margarette, M.A., The University of Regina (Canada), 2006, 92 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Realist fiction, since the rise of Victorian realism, has been privileged by both scholarly and popular circles, while the "pop-culture" genre of fantasy has fallen into disrepute as escapist, formulaic, and mass-manufactured. However, realism and fantasy are not necessarily antagonistic genres, as both contain mimetic impulses and subsequently approach reality, though through different paths. Using the theories of Goethe ("Truth and Probabilities in Works of Art") and Tolkien ("On Fairy-Stories") and arguing that reality may be approached through a coherent and seemingly independent secondary world, I contend that fantasy, through what I call fantastic realism, represents reality. To support my argument, I look at the realist aspects of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , focusing on the following areas: verisimilitude through detail and character, free will and determinism, and most importantly, endings. The depth and coherence of Middle-earth is similar to the verisimilitude of realist novels, and the characters are similarly three-dimensional and believable; however, characters in fantasy are shaped more by free will than the pessimist determinism of realism, and fantastic realism, unlike traditional realism, which tends to focus on the more difficult and dire aspects of life, is characterized by what Tolkien calls the eucatastrophe , the ending marked by joy. Fantasy, because of its disconnection to consensus reality, is able to present joy as realistic and believable. To reinforce my argument, I briefly examine two post-Tolkien works of fantasy, Stephen R. Donaldson's The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant the Unbeliever and Susanna Clarke's Jonathan Strange and Mr. Norrell . Ultimately, the genre of fantasy is worthwhile and meaningful because of the refreshing and profound way it approaches reality.

Tolkien's two faces of war: Paradox and parallel structure in "The Lord of the Rings" and "The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth"
by Grybauskas, Peter, M.A., University of Maryland, College Park, 2010, 84 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J.R.R. Tolkien once referred to The Lord of the Rings as a "rather bitter, and very terrifying romance." This paper examines the paradoxical representation of Tolkien's war--one which is at once bitter and romantic--in The Lord of the Rings and the dramatic dialogue, "The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son." Structural comparison of the works suggests that Tídwald and Torhthelm, the two voices in opposition throughout "The Homecoming," in some sense continue their unending debate on the nature of war in Books III-VI of The Lord of the Rings . The structures of these works, defined by contrasting visions of war, reflect Tolkien's ongoing struggle to square the two incompatible strands. The tension between these two views of war is a crucial ingredient to Tolkien's work--and a struggle never tidily resolved.

Mirror on Middle-earth: J. R. R. Tolkien and the critical perspectives
by Timmons, Daniel Patrick, Ph.D., University of Toronto (Canada), 1998, 271 pages

Abstract (Summary)

This dissertation evaluates the commentary on J. R. R. Tolkien, which includes the author's self-criticism. Commonly-held views of Tolkien reception, such as that there is a large body of "hostile" criticism or that relatively few "serious" studies exist, are misinformed. Rather than being concerned about the presence of negative or adulatory views of Tolkien, scholars should acknowledge the potential problems in adopting Tolkien's comments on his own works, especially since many of these remarks are slippery or possibly disingenuous. Still, as the varied and numerous critical perspectives on Tolkien indicate, for sixty years scholars have recognized the literary depths and merits of the author's writings.

The first part of the dissertation examines the elusive literary concept "fantasy" and the premises of "Tolkienian fantasy;" this analysis sets the context for the discussion of the scholarship on Middle-earth. Next, the study evaluates the first major period in Tolkien criticism, which starts with reviews of The Hobbit in 1937 and ends at the publication of the second edition of The Lord of the Rings in 1965. In the years following the publication of the Middle-earth tales, Tolkien provided commentaries on the creative inspirations behind them. The dissertation assesses the initial block of Tolkien's self-criticism, such as his article "Tolkien on Tolkien."

The next major period of commentary comprises studies published between 1966 and 1976 (the year before the initial publication of The Silmarillion ). The dissertation then examines another significant block of Tolkien's self-criticism, which includes the collection of his letters. The last chapter provides an assessment of the current state of the extensive and diverse commentary on Tolkien.

Therefore, the customary labels for Tolkien criticism, such as "hostile" vs. "laudatory" or "popular" vs. "serious," are more misleading than representative. While there may be starkly differing views of Tolkien and uncertainty as to whether he is considered a "canonical" author, his writings remain among the most widely read and consistently admired works of literature of the twentieth century.
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The flame imperishable: Tolkien, St. Thomas, and the metaphysics of Faerie
by McIntosh, Jonathan S., Ph.D., University of Dallas, 2009, 417 pages

Abstract (Summary)

The argument of this dissertation is that J. R. R. Token was a metaphysical thinker, that questions concerning the nature of both created and uncreated being significantly inspired and shaped his fiction, and that one of the formative influences on Tolkien's metaphysical imagination was his great Catholic forbear, the thirteenth-century theologian St. Thomas Aquinas. In this dissertation, accordingly, I undertake a philosophical investigation of Tolkien's creation-story recounting the origins of the world of Middle-earth, the Ainulindalë , in which he lays the metaphysical and theological foundation for many of the more recognizable themes from his mythology, including sub-creation, free will, evil, and eucatastrophe. Each of the following five chapters focuses on a different element or elements from Tolkien's creation-myth, analyzing these in light of some of the central philosophical questions considered by St. Thomas Aquinas, especially in his Summa Theologiae . My conclusion is that, in its appropriation of many of the philosophical insights of St. Thomas, what Tolkien's literary opus accomplishes in part is an important and unique landmark in the history of Thomism, offering a creative and powerful contemporary retrieval, interpretation, and application of Thomistic metaphysics for the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

War, heroism, and narrative: Hemingway, Tolkien, and le Carre, storytellers to the modern world
by Vince, Raymond Michael, Ph.D., University of South Florida, 2005, 242 pages

Abstract (Summary)

"To find a hero one tells a story." Heroic narratives bring meaning to the uncertainties of life, of which war is the most terrible. Yet concepts of heroism have changed since the Great War. The aim is to study war, heroism, and narrative in the life and work of Ernest Hemingway, J. R. R. Tolkien, and John le Carré. Chapter One spells out the changing nature of the hero, the development of a heroism of the ordinary, and the relationship of the hero to heroic narratives. Chapter Two outlines the scope and methodology through the metaphor of mapping, the impact of the Great War, the past "from which we have all emigrated," the Cold War and beyond, the memories of war, and the ironies and ambiguities of modernity and modernism.

Chapter Three explores the work of Hemingway, using the roles of writers and soldiers, and his continuing experience of war. The focus is on In Our Time , The Sun Also Rises , A Farewell to Arms , For Whom the Bell Tolls , Across the River and into the Trees , and The Old Man and the Sea . His short stories and war correspondence are briefly examined.

Chapter Four looks at Tolkien, using the roles of hobbits and wizards, and his experience at the Battle of the Somme. The following works are examined: "Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics," The Hobbit , "On Fairy-Stories," The Fellowship of the Ring , The Two Towers , The Return of the King , and The Silmarillion and other works.

Chapter Five examines le Carré, using the roles of spies and moles, and placing him among the betrayals of the Cold War. The Spy Who Came In From the Cold , Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy , The Honorable Schoolboy , Smiley's People , The Little Drummer Girl , A Perfect Spy , and Absolute Friends are examined.

Chapter Six shows how Hemingway, Tolkien, and le Carré, in their varied responses to war and heroism, developed different and complex narratives, becoming storytellers to the modern world.

"The sweet and the bitter": Death and dying in J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings"
by Amendt-Raduege, Amy M., Ph.D., Marquette University, 2007, 251 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Death and immortality are, by Tolkien's own admission, central themes in The Lord of the Rings. This dissertation examines the interpretation of death in Tolkien's work from three principle perspectives: the philosophical necessity of death, the ways in which individual characters meet their deaths, and the cultural conundrum represented by the necessity of dealing with the dead. No work, however, exists in a vacuum; thus the opening and closing chapters show how The Lord of the Rings was influenced by and exerts its influence upon the real world. The opening chapter therefore sets Tolkien's work in biographical and historical context. The next three chapters discuss the interpretation of death as it is depicted in the story of Middle-earth: chapter two examines Tolkien's depictions of the forms of immortality and their potential consequences for human life, while chapter three focuses on the impact of that philosophy for eight of the character deaths depicted in The Lord of the Rings, four representing the medieval ideals of the "good death" and four representing the various incarnations of "bad" deaths. Chapter four is concerned with the commemoration of the dead, both in their physical locations within the graves and cemeteries of Middle-earth or in the verbal cenotaphs of song and story. The fifth chapter returns to our world and demonstrates the ways in which real people are or might be using his magnum opus as a means of consolation for the inevitability of death. While death exists within a complex web of interconnecting and often opposing viewpoints, the final analysis reveals that Tolkien's conception of death as the Gift of God to humankind remains consistent throughout the story.

An uncharted land: Female characters in J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings" and related writings
by Hanslip, Andrea Robin, M.A., University of Calgary (Canada), 1993, 140 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Earlier versions of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings exist in a multitude of drafts, outlines and scribbled notes. This is a textual archaeology of these many drafts, analyzing how the textual change over time manifests itself in/through the female characters. The focus is on the process of writing rather than the product. Feminist theory of the construction of the self and narratological theory concerning characters and focalization form a backdrop for this analysis. I begin with a discussion of female absence in Tolkien's Middle-earth, then examine the major female characters--Arwen, Eowyn and Galadriel--represented in The Lord of the Rings. The final chapter investigates textual change connected with minor female characters. There is not only a great diversity in character development, but Tolkien also subverts traditional hierarchy in his depictions of women: Lord cannot be pinned down to any concrete position regarding female characters.

ROMANTIC RELIGION IN THE WORK OF OWEN BARFIELD, C. S. LEWIS, CHARLES WILLIAMS, AND J. R. R. TOLKIEN
by REILLY, ROBERT J., Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1960, 309 pages

'THE HOBBIT' AND OTHER FICTION BY J. R. R. TOLKIEN: THEIR ROOTS IN MEDIEVAL HEROIC LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE
by GREEN, WILLIAM HOWARD, Ph.D., Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, 1969, 195 pages

THE POLITICS OF FANTASY: C. S. LEWIS AND J. R. R. TOLKIEN
by ROSSI, LEE DONALD, Ph.D., Cornell University, 1972, 264 pages

Ash Nazg: A biography
by Bernabei, Jason Phillip, M.A., Florida Atlantic University, 2003, 46 pages

Abstract (Summary)

At the center of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings lies an epic power struggle between good and evil, the latter embodied by the "One Ring," "Ash Nazg" in the speech of Mordor. Although Tolkien scholarship has heretofore treated the Ring as a non-sentient object, "Ash Nazg" has a surprisingly dramatic life story as well as a dynamic relationship with other characters in the epic. His character development is here chronicled from conception to death, and his relationships thoroughly examined. As a machiavel of royal birth, abducted after the defeat of his father by the Numenoreans, Ash Nazg has made it his quest to return to the land of his birth at the bidding of his father, ascend the throne of darkness, and claim domination over Middle-earth. By thus characterizing Ash Nazg, this essay not only provides a unique perspective upon the theme of the epic, it again demonstrates the indispensability of character as a literary concept, and thus issues a challenge to the fashionable dogmas of postmodernist thought.
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Myth and ideology in J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Silmarillion"
by Padgett, Walter Jan, M.A., Indiana State University, 2007, 83 pages

Abstract (Summary)

There is no thoughtful preparation for an adequate comprehensive understanding of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Silmarillion. Addressing a social or cultural gap or need, this thesis provides a prolegomenon to The Silmarillion. Not being a literary analysis, this prolegomenon addresses the need for a mature complex introduction to The Silmarillion in relation to the concepts of myth and ideology, and it provides a discussion of how they may manifest themselves in any creative work.

My thesis is that Tolkien's writings perpetuate mythological themes that impose order on the communication of moral or ethical values to their reader, and also on explanations of the complex natural and psychological phenomena made sensible by those mythological themes. Tolkien's myth-making shapes the ideological mindset of his readers in a collective way, resulting in the existence of a common understanding and worldview among participants in the cultural phenomenon connected to Tolkien's works.

Certain truths expressed in Middle-earth are translated in the mind of the reader to the real world, and if he believes in them, and can relate to a community of "like-minded beings" familiar with the same language and images (to my way of thinking), and as his understanding of "the purposes of God" and appropriate moral conduct take shape under these ideological matrices, his personal experience will be favorably altered, and perhaps that of society as well.

Awakening a world with words: How J. R. R. Tolkien uses linguistic narrative techniques to take his readers to Faery in his short story, "Smith of Wootton Major"
by Pueppke, Michael, M.A., University of North Texas, 2007, 124 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J.R.R. Tolkien uses specific linguistic narrative techniques in Smith of Wootton Major to make the world of Wootton Major and the nearby land of Faery come to life for his readers. In this thesis, I examine how Tolkien accomplishes this feat by presenting a linguistic analysis of some parts of the story. My analysis is also informed by Tolkien's own ideas of fairy-stories, and as such, it uniquely shows the symbiotic relationship between Tolkien's theories and his narrative art.

The sacramental vision: Mythopoeic imagination and ecology in Coleridge, MacDonald, Lewis, and Tolkien
by Brawley, Christopher S., Ph.D., The Florida State University, 2003, 149 pages

Abstract (Summary)

The purpose of the present project is to isolate and define a prominent characteristic of mythopoeic fantasy, the attempt to reawaken the numinous consciousness, which in the hands of Coleridge, MacDonald, Lewis, and Tolkien serves to provide a revisioning of the human relationship with the natural world. The project will counter two kinds of argument, one by literary critics who view this type of literature as "escapist," bearing no relationship to the world, and one by environmental critics who believe Christianity causes hostility towards "right" relations with the earth. By analyzing specific texts by these authors, who are heavily influenced by Christianity, the project will show that mythopoeic fantasy, if successful, offers the reader a unique religious response to the environment.

The element of the numinous consciousness within the works of the four authors will be discussed specifically in relation to the influential book by Rudolf Otto, The Idea of the Holy . However, in analyzing the common denominator of the numinous consciousness in these mythopoeic works, the present study will further note differences among the authors in their presentation of this religious mode of experience. Chapters two and three will focus on the "inner" quest for the numinous, which involves a transcendence or annihilation of the self in order for a revisioning of the world. Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" and George MacDonald's Phantastes will be analyzed in terms of this transcendence of the self which helps to facilitate the experience of the numinous. Chapters four and five will deal with the numinous as it exists on a more epic scale, as that which is "outer." In Lewis's The Last Battle and Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , the emphasis will be placed on the transcendence not of the individual self but of the entire world. Although a distinction will be made between the "inner" and "outer" manifestations of the numinous, all four authors employ fantasy as a subversive form of art which allows readers to revise their perceptions of the natural world.

THE CREATIVE MYTHOLOGY OF J. R. R. TOLKIEN: A STUDY OF THE MYTHIC IMPULSE
by PETTY, ANNE COTTON, Ph.D., The Florida State University, 1972, 151 pages

Dark ages: J. R. R. Tolkien's communication of evil in three legendarium stories
by Keuthan, Mark A., Ph.D., Regent University, 2010, 283 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Understanding J.R.R. Tolkien's early fiction holds the key to understanding his later major works: The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. The legendarium, published as The Silmarillion , is a rich treasure of the history of men and elves, of the legends of mighty and tragic heroes and heroines, and of the centuries of struggle against the ceaseless onslaught of evil in Middle-earth. An examination of evil as it develops and manifests over the first three Ages of Tolkien's world is the focus of this project. Tolkien wrote the first three stories of his legendarium immediately after his experiences fighting in World War I and returned to work on them through the rest of his life. These three stories represent three different, increasingly complex depictions of evil, which are placed in juxtaposed historical context with the three biographical periods in Tolkien's life where new ideas about the nature of evil are likely to have developed. The three stories are critically analyzed to reveal what they communicate about Tolkien's understanding of the nature of evil, in conjunction with an examination of certain elements which may have influenced his understanding of evil, namely World War I, Beowulf, and the Book of Job. Utilizing critical tools, including Fisher's Narrative Paradigm, McFague's Parabolic Theology Model, and the Augustinian doctrine of evil, yields the conclusions that Tolkien's early stories indirectly communicate intricate, complex, and deeply spiritual ideas about evil. His ideas of evil then find their full fruition in his magnum opus- The Lords of the Rings .

Apocalypse and memory in "Pearl"
by Long, Rebekah, Ph.D., Duke University, 2005, 308 pages

Abstract (Summary)

The work of elegy, of remembering the dead, is rooted in the linguistic figuring of loss. This dissertation looks at major shifts in the treatment of elegiac language in late medieval literature, changes characterized by an insistent rejection of inherited discourses of loss and a vigorous search for what these poems perceive as an appropriate, adequate language of commemoration, by beginning with Chaucer's early dream-vision The Book of the Duchess and treating at length the dream-vision Pearl .

Pearl , a poem concerned with a parent's grief over the death of a child, has been viewed variously as a biographical expression of real-life tragedy, a generic consolatio extending a long literary tradition, a traditional allegory concerning the soul's learning of spiritual truths, and, recently, as a political allegory celebrating Ricardian iconography. I contend that Pearl radically revises commemorative language by using a controversial medium, vernacular scriptural paraphrase, to embrace the dead.

By treating The Book of the Duchess and Pearl as case studies, my dissertation also explores what happens to medieval elegies when the theoretical paradigms prominent in current medieval literary scholarship, especially types of historicism roughly patterned after new historicism and psychoanalysis, are applied to the late medieval poetics of loss. In the case of these elegies, as I suggest, the interpretive methodologies of such engagements erase the word-based work of the poems through an imposition of a political and aesthetic narrative that refuses to acknowledge both generic difference and the poems, rejection of inherited forms. They similarly fail to recognize that disparate media (manuscript image, dramatic procession, scriptural paraphrase, vernacular poetry) articulate meanings in different registers, and that these late fourteenth-century elegies initiate an intermedial conversation between these forms to revise and fundamentally revision memorial language.

In the dissertation's closing section I explore the themes of recollection at work in the reception of medieval texts--processes both intrinsic and external to these texts. I center on the exemplary case of J. R. R. Tolkien and his important, life-long relationship to Pearl . In 1927 Tolkien published a poem titled "The Nameless Land." The sixty-line poem is a curious exercise--an experiment in form, intended as an approximation of the exceptionally difficult interwoven and alliterative structure of Pearl in modern verse. The poem is a condensation of Tolkien's theories about the methodologies of medievalism; I discuss how Tolkien uses the poem's frame to give voice to a medievalism that consciously resists the influential Victorian poetic-nostalgic model promoted by Tennyson. As I show, Tolkien's medievalism is an inspired habit of remembrance rooted in formal linguistic analysis. Its tone was deeply influenced by Tolkien's relationship to Pearl , a poem that urges us to reflect on our commemorative pathways, the resources we draw on to recall the dead.
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Пред. 06.01.12, 15:32   #26
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RELIGIOUS FICTION IN A PROFANE TIME: CHARLES WILLIAMS, C.S. LEWIS, AND J.R.R. TOLKIEN
by DOWIE, WILLIAM JOHN, JR., Ph.D., Brandeis University, 1970, 130 pages

Mythologies of power: H. Rider Haggard's influence on J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings"
by Hix, Melanie Renee, M.L.A., Oklahoma City University, 2004, 55 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J. R. R. Tolkien's influence on pop culture is evident in the immense popularity of The Lord of the Rings book and movie version. However, little is known about any substantial influence on the author himself, with the exception of H. Rider Haggard. Indeed, in an interview with Henry Resnick, Tolkien admits the influence of Haggard's fantastic adventure novels: "I suppose as a boy She interested me as much as anything--like the Greek shard of Amynatas, which was the kind of machine by which everything got moving" (40). In what way did Haggard help Tolkien "get moving"? How did Haggard influence Tolkien? Both authors explore mythologies of power. I believe Tolkien took several of Haggard's characters and settings/plots and made them into characters that are more dynamic (than Haggard's characters) in his beloved trilogy LOTR .

A close study of LOTR and Haggard's King Solomon's Mines reveals striking similarities between the fortune-fated Gollum of LOTR trilogy and the sad, shadowed Gagool of Haggard's novel. Similarly, Galadriel, the beautiful elven queen of LOTR shares striking traits of power with Haggard's title character She . The final similarity I explore is the symbolic setting/plot combination. Both Haggard and Tolkien used caves/death in order to explore power and its destructive nature. I show the striking similarities between Haggard's fantasy/adventure novels and Tolkien's trilogy that has captured the world's attention.

Embracing the Took: Kinship between Middle Earth and sixties youth
by Watkins, Shana, M.A., The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2007, 80 pages

Abstract (Summary)

The purpose of this thesis is to quash the reading of J.R.R. Tolkien's works as allegory, especially as allegory for the events of the turbulent 1960s, i.e. the Vietnam War, 1967's Summer of Love, the women's liberation movement, etc. By addressing each of the Sixties' infamous political and social movements, tragedies, victories, and controversies, this paper proves that the members of the Baby Boomer generation were inspired by the events described in Tolkien's primary works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. Middle Earth's events in the novels resounded throughout the Sixties, but were not actually about the Sixties, nor were they allegories of any previous decade, as some critics claim. Being a time of social unrest and demand for government and social revamping, the Sixties provided a particularly enthralled audience for the fantasy genre because it provided an alternative to mainstream literature. Sixties youth--part of which came to be known as the counterculture--demanded alternatives in nearly every facet of the American lifestyle, from the young rock-and-roll music genre to rebellious young celebrity idols like James Dean who contrasted Sixties parents' idea of glamorous and wholesome movie stars whose film and television characters strove to acquire the materialistic American dream.

THREE OXFORD DONS AS CREATORS OF OTHER WORLDS FOR CHILDREN: LEWIS CARROLL, C. S. LEWIS, AND J. R. R. TOLKIEN
by KOLBE, MARTHA EMILY, Educat.D., University of Virginia, 1981, 285 pages

Abstract (Summary)

A literary phenomenon occurred in the History of Children's Literature in that five eminent scholars from one of England's most prestigious universities, Oxford, became interested in the creation of Other Worlds for children. In order to accommodate intensive investigation of the phenomenon, this study was delimited to include three of the five authors. Lewis Carroll, C. S. Lewis, and J. R. R. Tolkien were selected to comprise the sample, while John Ruskin and W. H. Auden were excluded.

This study investigated some of the motivational factors present in the lives of these scholars that stimulated them in the midst of brilliant academic careers to compose major works for children. Strands of similarities and differences were identified which existed in the family background, environment, and personality traits of each man. Historical, religious, and literary influences affecting each life were also examined. An additional factor of interest was each author's own perception of why he was compelled to create Other Worlds for children. Finally, an effort was made to describe some of the unique qualities of each author's work.

An analysis was made of the biographical data collected in all of the specific categories for each of the authors. This categorical analysis was conducted utilizing a method of comparing and contrasting, category by category, all available information for the group. In each area patterns of commonality and variance were noted and presented through discussion and cataloguing within each category.

Results of the study indicate that the three authors exhibited early in life an extraordinary intellectual ability to deal with abstractions. The environmental influences which operated upon each author's mental capacities were often quite similar when studied beyond the mere surface level of evidence. The major differences were chiefly found in the physical circumstances of each life.

This study concluded that the creative world of the field of Children's Literature was both ideal and irresistible to the three scholars. They were committed to the rigors of academic life and the love of language. In the final analysis Lewis Carroll, C. S. Lewis, and J. R. R. Tolkien were men far removed from the give and take world of commerce. . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of school.) UMI

LINGUISTIC TECHNIQUES USED IN CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORKS OF J. R. R. TOLKIEN. (VOLUMES I-III)
by HYDE, PAUL NOLAN, Ph.D., Purdue University, 1982, 1230 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J. R. R. Tolkien's "linguistic aesthetic" as displayed in his invented languages, his use of historical languages, and his patterning of introductory verb and adverbial modifiers for dialog, is presented to evidence Tolkien's capacity for character development in the tradition of the Fairy Tale. Chapter I discusses the controversy concerning Tolkien's apparent inability to depict character. Chapter II summarizes Tolkien's statements in correspondence and interviews regarding his "linguistic aesthetic" and how that aesthetic motivated his inventions, both linguistic and narrative. Chapters III through VIII comprise a descriptive analysis of the invented languages of Middle-earth including orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax. Chapters IX and X discuss the use of real historical languages in the fantasies and the extraordinary care taken by Tolkien in choosing appropriate verbs and adverbial modifiers to introduce the dialog of the characters. Particular attention is given to statistical analyses of "unmarked" verbs and adverbial modifiers. The Appendices contain complete Glossaries of the Invented and Real Language elements together with computer-derived morphological elements. Other Appendices contain all of the verbs and adverbial modifiers together with the "Speaker", Speaker Race", "Responder/Addressee", "Responder/Addressee Race", and the source for each utterance by volume and page number for: "Smith of Wooton Major", "Farmer Giles of Ham", "Leaf by Niggle", The Hobbit, The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, The Return of the King, The Silmarillion, and Unfinished Tales.
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The Bible, King Arthur, and "The Lord of the Rings": Archetypal connections and influences on J. R. R. Tolkien
by Palmer, Jody, M.A., California State University, Dominguez Hills, 2005, 53 pages

Abstract (Summary)

While much literary criticism has been written on J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , including using the archetypal approach, not many critics have specifically traced archetypes of the Bible and Arthurian literature to Tolkien's work---both of which profoundly influenced his writing. This study will look at evidence of these influences in the Rings trilogy as well as explore particular archetypes. The middle chapters of this thesis center on different archetypes, each chapter focusing on a single one and drawing connections between characters in each of these three areas of literature. These are archetypes that are employed in the Bible but can be traced through Arthurian legend and into The Lord of the Rings , such as the wise prophet and the sacrificial hero.

Humanity through the ages has desired stories of heroes that elevate the human spirit. Exploring archetypes from these three ancient, medieval, and modern epics---like analyzing any universal symbol or theme in any literature---validates that part of human nature.

A stylistic analysis of selected passages in "The Hobbit" and "The Lord of the Rings"
by Hurtubise, Paul Gustave, M.A., York University (Canada), 1998, 173 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J. R. R. Tolkien's abilities in the art of narrative are explored and evaluated through the medium of linguistic/sociolinguistic and literary theories. Chapter 1 discusses a poem by Tolkien, "From dark Dunharrow in the dim morning," examining its exploitation of the rules and techniques of Old English poetic verse. Chapter 2 investigates Tolkien's skill in depicting not only comic conversations, in The Hobbit, but in balancing the comic with the potentially tragic; this is done through the medium of "Face," "Implicature," and "Speech Acts" as advanced, respectively, by Goffman, Grice and Searle. Chapter 3 explores "evaluation," as proposed by Labov, in the passage from The Lord of the Rings which describes the riding of king Theoden at the Battle of the Pelenor. Appendix A contains the scene from The Hobbit, which is to be analysed in Chapter 2. Appendix B contains a "labovian" breakdown of the passage which is to be analysed in Chapter 3. The sources of each passage that is to undergo stylistic scrutiny are The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.

Uses of Celtic legend and Arthurian romance in J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings"
by Phillips, David Calvin, M.A., East Texas State University, 1993, 93 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Close examination of the themes in The Lord of the Rings and a comparison of those themes with the themes found in medieval Celtic legend and the later Arthurian romances which grew out of the Celtic stories about Arthur show that this British legend is the most likely source for Tolkien's work. This thesis also compares numerous elements of Tolkien's trilogy with very similar elements in Celtic legends.

Comparison of elements of analogue, plot, and theme which are similar in Tolkien's work and in Celtic and Arthurian legend not only shows that Tolkien drew upon these legends, but also that his purpose in writing the trilogy was to create a new national legend for England in which the Arthur figure, the character Aragorn in the trilogy, returns to establish a glorious reign and to set to rights all that has gone wrong with England as a nation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

MAN IN A MORTAL WORLD: J. R. R. TOLKIEN AND "THE LORD OF THE RINGS"
by SARTI, RONALD CHRISTOPHER, Ph.D., Indiana University, 1984, 205 pages

Abstract (Summary)

J. R. R. Tolkien's cosmology translated into a great mythological structure revolving around three dominant and inclusive themes: Fall, Mortality and the Machine (or Magic). Mortality, or lif is laene, is the dominant and unifying theme of The Lord of the Rings.

Mortality is a theme found in much of medieval literature, and particularly in Beowulf, one of Tolkien's favorite works. Like the Beowulf poet, Tolkien centered his work about the great truth of the mortal world: lif is laene: life is transitory. Man and all his works shall die. The theme is developed in The Lord of the Rings in four repeated manifestations: change, choice, leave-taking and death, each reiterating the lessons of a mortal world and the sense of loss and sadness engendered thereby.

Faced with the dominance of this theme in his work, as in his life, Tolkien explores two antithetical philosophies of life that have dominated much of Western thought in the last two thousand years. The two philosophies, or codes of life, are the Nordic and the Christian. As the theme forms a pervasive backdrop to his drama, so that exploration of these two codes composes the dramatic conflict at center stage.

Each provides a way of dealing with the grim reality of a mortal world. The Nordic code is expressed in the values of despair, pride, vengeance and earthly fealty, values which have long served Western Man. However, the Nordic code, as Tolkien well knew, could betray as well as fortify.

In contrast, the Christian values of hope, humility, mercy and fealty (or submission) to God and His Purpose allow a true understanding and acceptance of each man's place in the mortal world of God's Plan. They permit a more effective defense against the worst enemy, the despair of death. Death itself is not to be despaired, for it is not a punishment, but a gift. These messages are the purpose of Tolkien's greatest work.

Freedom and shared storytelling in J. R. R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings"
by Bird, Tanya, M.A., University of Ottawa (Canada), 2003, 174 pages

Abstract (Summary)

This thesis explores the freedom of shared storytelling in Tolkien's seminal essay, "On Fairy-Stories," and applies these principles to his fiction. In The Lord of The Rings , authentic storytelling is developed not through domination of others, but within the context of free relationships. Ultimately, the literary freedom that the author enjoys, and extends to the audience or to characters, is grounded in the Primary Creator's gift of freedom and invitation to engage in "subcreation." While Sauron ruptures the subcreative relationship by forging the ring of power to dominate others ("magic"), the elves, hobbits and other creatures share narrative ("enchantment"), affirming being through "recovery." Recovery counteracts Sauron's determinism and enables hope for "eucatastrophe," the redemptive grace at the heart of stories. Tolkien offers a unique alternative to secular models of literary freedom: human agency may be represented in literature not only through independence from divine intervention, but also in collaboration with it.
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Пред. 06.01.12, 15:33   #28
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God treads lightly: Humanistic ideals in J. R. R. Tolkien's providential world
by Baesler-Ridge, Christopher, M.A., Southern Connecticut State University, 2004, 82 pages

Abstract (Summary)

The world that John Ronald Reuel Tolkien presents to its in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings seems to be a moralistic and providential one, created by a Supreme Being that he identifies in the Silmarillion . However, it is not a Christian world and the "God" figure that Tolkien presents is not represented by a codified belief system or a "church." This thesis examines the three main texts on Middle-earth from the perspective of humanism. Despite the evidence of providence and prophecy, it is clear that Tolkien's characters are allowed to make moral choices, and to accept the consequences of those choices, without the direct intervention of a God or religion dictating behavior. Instead, the characters make these moral choices not to fulfill the will of God but for the good of society and humanity.

Elves, the righteous ringmakers: Taking Tolkien seriously
by Rosa, Adrian Wayne, M.A., Florida Atlantic University, 1990, 76 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Tolkien's trilogy deserves a more serious consideration than many are willing to give. Through Tolkien's fantasy it is possible to discover how we come to know what we know about the metaphysical world so that we can experience the proper cosmic pattern that gives us, as Mircea Eliade writes in Cosmos And History, "the nostalgia for eternity" because its patterns "can never be uprooted: it can only be debased" (122). If we are to understand Tolkien, we must discuss Tolkien's ideas such as power, the nature of good and evil, and free will and individual responsibility. The virtue of the elves becomes the focal point for those ideas since the elves are the structural force that gives the work its power and meaning. To further explain the virtue of the elves, Tolkien plunges into basic human emotions and a symbolic structure that can surmount cultural boundaries. He thus creates a world through the ancient device of exemplifying morals in unfamiliar personalities in order to bring home truths in which modern man can believe.

THE COSMIC KINGDOM OF MYTH: A STUDY IN THE MYTH-PHILOSOPHY OF CHARLES WILLIAMS, C. S. LEWIS, AND J. R. R. TOLKIEN
by WRIGHT, MARJORIE EVELYN, Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1960, 196 pages

По материалам сайта http://www.dslib.net/
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Пред. 07.04.12, 22:35   #29
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Соснин Евгений Викторович. Образы древнегерманской мифопоэтической модели мира и их реконструкция в произведениях Дж.Р.Р. Толкина: автореф. дис. ... кандидата филологических наук. - Новосибирск, 2011.- 22 с.

http://www.uni-altai.ru/engine/download.php?id=6922
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Пред. 06.07.13, 09:38   #30
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Галиев Сергей Сергеевич. Функция мифологического в произведениях Дж.Р.Р. Толкина и А.В. Иванова: Автореф. дисс. канд. филол. наук. - М, 2012. - 23 с.

http://mggu-sh.ru/sites/default/files/galiev_ss.doc

===== начало цитирования =====

На защиту выносятся следующие положения:

1. Произведения Толкина и Иванова обладают смежностью на мифологическом уровне, общностью мифологических источников и определённых принципов мифопоэтики.

2. Идеологические функции мифа в произведениях Иванова и Толкина имеют существенные различия.

3. В произведениях Толкина и Иванова одно из основных различий заключается в том, что писатели по-разному используют мифологические конструкты в формировании новых художественных элементов. Этот процесс отражает тенденцию более интенсивной художественной интеграции мифа.


===== окончание цитирования =====

Я балдею в этом зоопарке...

Last edited by Дм. Винoxoдов; 06.07.13 at 09:49.
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Пред. 07.07.13, 14:37   #31
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John is an unknown quantity at this point
Ойбл.
Это то, о чём я говорил на семинаре - о поиске общего с Толкином у кого попало.
Типа. такой-то автор использовал артикль the и Толкин его использовал. Вперёд. Пишем статью/диссертацию.
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Пред. 12.07.13, 00:47   #32
Дм. Винoxoдов
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Аватарка Дм. Винoxoдов
 
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Дм. Винoxoдов is an unknown quantity at this point
Ну, в общем да. Ещё один экземпляр в Вашу коллекцию.
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Пред. 21.09.13, 10:46   #33
John
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Аватарка John
 
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John is an unknown quantity at this point
На Толкин.СЮ интересная возня вокруг данного сабжа завязывается. ;-)
http://tolkien.su/forum/index.php/to...04576.html#new
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Пред. 01.02.15, 00:51   #34
Дм. Винoxoдов
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Аватарка Дм. Винoxoдов
 
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Дм. Винoxoдов is an unknown quantity at this point
Винтерле Ирина Дмитриевна. Феномен незавершенности в раннем творчестве Дж.Р.Р. Толкина и проблема становления концепции фэнтези: Автореферат дис. ... кандидата филологических наук : 10.01.03 / Винтерле Ирина Дмитриевна; [Место защиты: Нижегор. гос. ун-т им. Н.И. Лобачевского]. - Нижний Новгород, 2013. - 24 с.

http://dlib.rsl.ru/01005542188
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