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Пред. 06.01.12, 14:27   #21
Дм. Винoxoдов
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Tolkien's "The Silmarillion": A reexamination of providence
by Powell, David C., M.A., Florida Atlantic University, 2009, 88 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Christian providence in the primary (real) world operates as the model for the spiritual movement of Eru/Illuvatar in Tolkien's secondary (imaginative) world. Paralleling the Christian God, Illuvatar maintains a relationship with his creation through a three-fold activity: preservation, concurrence, and government. Preservation affirms Eru's sovereignty as Creator, and concurrence guarantees creaturely freedom, while paradoxically, government controls, guides, and determines those wills in Time. The union of these three activities comprises the providential relationship of Illuvatar in Tolkien's imaginary world. The following thesis endeavors to carry the argument for providence into The Silmarillion with a declarative and analytical detail that distinguishes Illuvatar's providence from other temporal manifestations. Finally, the analysis reveals not only the author's authentic orthodox perspective, but Illuvatar's role in the imaginative world emerges as a reflection of Tolkien's authorial role in the real world.

Discordia concours in Tolkien's musical universe
by Renneisen, Elizabeth McLean, Ph.D., Middle Tennessee State University, 2008, 222 pages

Abstract (Summary)

In J. R. R. Tolkien's myth "The Ainulindalë," Ilúvatar constructs the world of Middle-earth through music. While the Ainur, Tolkien's idea of angelic beings, interweave melodies to reflect the beauty of the world, one Ainu, Melkor, interjects dissonance of his own that is responsible for the evil in Middle-earth. The act of creation through music seems to be Tolkien's own device; however, music as an essential component in cosmogony does have philosophical precedents, including ideas propounded by Pythagoras and Boethius. This interjection of discord has a significant effect on The Silmarillion as a mythology for England. All mythologies have some basis in reality, whether they explain the origins of customs, ideas, or even people. Melkor's influence can be traced throughout The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings . Ultimately it is Sauron, minion of Melkor, that is responsible for the emergence of Man as the dominant being in the Fourth Age, thus tying Middle-earth to our own history and lending Tolkien's stories credibility in terms of a national mythology--not as a fantasy.

Models of medievalism in the fiction of C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and J.K. Rowling
by Spitzer, Drennan C., Ph.D., University of California, Riverside, 2005, 269 pages

Abstract (Summary)

C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, and J.K Rowling, all writers of fantasy fiction for adolescents, continually reference medieval literature and culture as a way to define cultural identity. Cultural identity gains legitimacy and even cultural supremacy because of its purported medieval foundations. The medievalism of these writers is associated with a cultural conservativism that is skeptical about the possibility of social progress. C.S. Lewis's medievalism is outlined most clearly in his academic works, especially in The Discarded Image , which intentionally describes what he calls the "medieval Model." This "Model" provides a groundwork for the medievalism that permeates Lewis's fiction, yet it also provides a lens for understanding other writers in the tradition of fantasy for adolescents. Lewis's "medieval Model" prefers traditional, even obsolete, ways of thinking about the universe and man's place in it to modern ones. The "medieval Model" also provides an antidote for the ills of the modern world, as we see in Lewis's fiction, notably his The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and That Hideous Strength . J.R.R. Tolkien also deals with the difficulties of the modern world. Like Lewis, Tolkien writes in the wake of the World Wars and is concerned with the threat to English identity and cultural identity caused by the Wars. And like Lewis, Tolkien also reverts to medievalism as an antidote. Tolkien, specifically, privileges particular cultural practices by providing philological, medieval justifications for these practices. This is evidenced in his children's novel The Hobbit as well as in his "Prologue" to The Lord of the Rings , where Tolkien most clearly explains and justifies the cultural practices of Hobbits as stand-ins for English heritage. J.K. Rowling, in her Harry Potter series, writes in the tradition defined by Lewis and Tolkien. Here, Rowling in some ways presents the better parts of the wizarding world as socially progressive. However, the possibility for real, lasting social change is continually called into question by the medievalized institutions that define wizarding society.

The creative process of J. R. R. Tolkien and the tradition of the magus
by Richards, Darielle Teresa, Ph.D., Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2005, 294 pages

Abstract (Summary)

As his letters reveal, J. R. R. Tolkien clearly intended to open a way for others to follow after him in the cultivation and literary creation of Other-worlds, not only as a refreshment to the soul, but as something of a natural mode and right of inheritance for each of us as the creative offspring of a Maker.

This hermeneutic exegesis of Tolkien's creative process reveals that he and his works not only hold up a literary mirror to the wisdom and praxis of depth and archetypal psychology but also exemplify the consciousness of a larger "magical" and imaginative tradition that calls for an even more aesthetic and imaginal psychology. This venerable lineage was named the "tradition of the magus" by fifteenth-century neoplatonic artist-scholar Marsilio Ficino. Its ancient principles served to ignite the Florentine Renaissance. Those of the magus lineage embrace the hermeneutic perspective innate to the Heart, which is both a participatory and a transformative threshold. This initiatory path is mythically sponsored by the friendliest god, Hermes. It is the intent of this study to make more visible this tradition and to identify certain forces that harm or censor it.

A further purpose of this theoretical study includes making available Tolkien's thoughts on his literary process, which impart to us a recovery of the threshold of the Heart from which a sense of kinship with all life and creative insight springs. This threshold is an imaginal doorway through which the "middle realm," or what Henry Corbin has called the mundus imaginalis , can be experienced. From this place, the creative process becomes co-creation within the parameters established by the biosphere and the life around us.

Tolkien reminds us of the divinity within, calling us to a deeper personal level of truth and reality. Such a lens allows us to perceive beyond our everyday world to the powers, images, figures, creatures, and stories of fäerie and the middle realm which deeply inform our lives. With this perception Tolkien reminds us that we might participate in the ongoing unfolding of the epiphanic living cosmos.

First man and Green Man: Archetypal parallels between Tolkien's Middle Earth, pagan Europe and Christian modernism
by Adams, Alicia E., M.A., California State University, Dominguez Hills, 2005, 64 pages

Abstract (Summary)

This thesis establishes that in Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , certain archetypal characters are present within the text in more than one incarnation. The biblical Adam as represented by the character Tom Bombadil, as well as the pagan Green Man as represented by the character Treebeard, function as nature protector figures within archetypal criticism. A nature protector figure was included twice within the text due to Tolkien's extremely anti-modernist sentiment. He also attempted to reconcile his Romantic and Catholic beliefs regarding nature.

Fate, providence, and free will: Clashing perspectives of world order in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth
by Lasseter, Helen Theresa, Ph.D., Baylor University, 2006, 236 pages

Abstract (Summary)

Through the medium of a fictional world, Tolkien returns his modern audience to the ancient yet extremely relevant conflict between fate, providence, and the person's freedom before them. Tolkien's expression of a providential world order to Middle-earth incorporates the Northern Germanic cultures' literary depiction of a fated world, while also reflecting the Anglo-Saxon poets' insight that a single concept, wyrd , could signify both fate and providence. This dissertation asserts that Tolkien, while acknowledging as correct the Northern Germanic conception of humanity's final powerlessness before the greater strength of wyrd as fate, uses the person's ultimate weakness before wyrd as the means for the vindication of providence. Tolkien's unique presentation of world order pays tribute to the pagan view of fate while transforming it into a Catholic understanding of providence.

The first section of the dissertation shows how the conflict between fate and providence in The Silmarillion results from the elvish narrator's perspective on temporal events. Chapter One examines the friction between fate and free will within The Silmarillion and within Tolkien's Northern sources, specifically the Norse Eddas , the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf , and the Finnish The Kalevala . Chapter Two shows that Tolkien, following Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy , presents Middle-earth's providential order as including fated elements but still allowing for human freedom.

The second section shows how The Lord of the Rings reflects but resolves the conflict in The Silmarillion between fate, providence, and free will. Chapter Three explores the extent to which a person can respond before powers of fate, such as the Ring and also deterministic circumstances. The final chapter argues that providence upholds the importance of every person by cooperating with his or her free will, not coercing it; however, providence reveals its authority over all things, including fate, by working through the person's final failure before fatalistic powers.
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